IBINYASUKARI N’IMIKORERE YABYO MU MUBIRI

Hari ihame ry’umuhanga mu by’ubuvuzi, Edward Nelson dukwiriye kuzirikana “Niba ushaka kigira imbaraga nk’iz’’ikimasa, jya urya ibyo ikimasa kirya, ariko ntukarye ikimasa.”

Iri hame turaza kuryumva neza ku musozo w’iki cyigisho cyerekeranye n’Ibinyasukari.

Umubiri wacu ukeneye isukari cyane. Ariko munyumve neza; ko igihe mvuga isukari ntabwo mba ndi kuvuga ya sukari tugura ku isoko yakozwe n’uruganda. Jye ndi kwivugira amasukari tuvana mu byokurya bitandukanye.

Amoko y’isukari

Amasukari yose agizwe n’ibinyabutabire bitatu ari byo: Carbon, hydrogen na Oxygen. Ibi iyo byibumbiye hamwe, bireme ingirangingingo-fatizo (molecules) z’amasukari atandukanye, haganedwe ku buryo zagiye zihuza.

Ibyo bituma habaho atatu (3) y’amasukari:

  • Monosakaride [monosaccharides]:
  • Disakaride [disaccharides]
  • Polysakaride [polysaccharides]

Murihanganira izi nyito kuko tutaziboneye ikinyarwanda. Reka turebe itandukaniro:

(1)  Monosakaride [monosaccharides]:

Ni ibinyasukari bigize n’ingirangingo-fatizo imwe muri kwa kkwihuza kwa bya binyabutabire. Uyu mugemo ‘mono’ usobanuye ‘rimwe’ bivuze ko ari molecule imwe.

Bene iyi sukari yakirwa kandi igakoreshwa n’umubiri vuba vuba. Nta hindagurika ricyenerwa kugira ngo igere mu maraso, ahubwo ihita igerayo ikimara kuribwa.

Aya masukari aboneka mu mbuto no mu buki (glucose na fructose

(2)  Disakaride [disaccharides]

Uyu mugemo ‘di’ uvuze kabiri. Bivuze yuko ayo masukari yo aremwe na molecules ebyiri. Ntabwo yo yihutira kugera mu maraso ako kanya, iicyakora na yo ihindagurika ryayo ntabwo ritinda.

Aya akunda kuboneka mu mineke, inanasi, ibisheke, n’izindi mbuto zitangukanye (sacharose), mu ngano na seyili (maltose) ndetse no mu mata (lactose).

(3)  Polysakaride [polysaccharides]

Ibi ni ibinyasukari noneho bigizwe na molecules nyinshi ziba zibumbiye hamwe mu buryo bwihariye.

Ubu bwoko bw’isukari buboneka mu mpeke, imizi, ibinyamafufu, imboga ndetse na zimwe mu mbuto.

Muri rusange ibyo ni byo binyasukari. Reka noneho turebe

Inzira y’ibinyasukari mu mubiri

Twarabibonye mu cyigisho kibanziriza iki yuko intungamubiri zose (harimo n’isukari) zigera aho zikenewe zinyuze mu maraso.

Kugira ngo rero isukari igere mu maraso, iyo ari yo yose wariye igomba kugera mu maraso yamaze guhinduka glucose, ya yindi twabonye mu bwoko bwa mbere bwa monosakaride.

Ibi bisobanuye yuko igihe turiye glucose na fructose mu byo kurya byacu, urugendo rwayo rwo kugera mu maraso ruzoroha cyane, ihite igerayo kuko nta yindi mpinduka icyeneye.

Nituramuka turiye isukari yo mu bwoko bwa kabiri ari yo yo mu itsinda rya disakaride, ni ukuvuga ama sacharose, lactose na maltose, urugendo rwo kugera mu maraso ruzatinda hato, kuko izabanza kwicagagura kugira ngo ihinduke glucose, umubiri ubasha kuyakira.

Ariko niturya isukari yo mu bwoko bwa gatatu bwa polisakaride, urugendo rwayo ruzaba rurerure cyane, ijye yisuka mu maraso gahoro gahoro, kubera ko byasabye inzira ndende kugira ngo ihinduke glucose. Byasabye kumenagura izo molecules ziyigize kugira ngo zibashe kwinjira.

Isukari ducyeneye ni iyi yo mu itsinda rya gatatu iboneka mu binyampeke byuzuye nk’ingano, uburo, ibigori, umuceri n’ibindi ; kuko yo idahita yiroha mu maraso. Urugendo rwayo rukorwa gahoro gahoro ntiyirohere mu maraso icya rimwe.

None se ni irihe tandukaniro ku wakoresheje isukari yo mu bwoko bwa mbere n’ubwa kabiri, n’uwakoresheje iyo mu bwoko bwa gatatu?

Mu bwoko bwa 1&2, isikuri ihita yiroha mu maraso. Umuntu azagira imbaraga nyuma gato yo kuyirya, ariko umubiri uzahita uyikoresha, maze nyuma y’igihe gito abe aratentebutse, imbaraga zirashize, ndetse yumve arasonje.

Wa wundi wariye iyo mu bwoko bwa gatatu yo muri bya binyampeke byuzuye, we azagumana imbaraga zidahinduka kandi mu gihe kirekire, kubera yuko yinjiza gahoro gahoro isukari imaze guhinduka.

Ese umubiri ukoresha isukari gute?

Tumaze kubibona yuko buri bwoko bw’isukari turya bugera mu mubiri bwahindutse glucose. Iyi glucose mu mubiri wacu yagereranywa n’amavuta (carbulant) mu byuma bikoreshwa na moteri. Mbese nk’uko imodoka idashobora kuva aho iri nta esansi cyangwa mazutu, uko ni ko n’umubiri udashobora kugira icyo ukora nta glucose.

Kugira ngo iyi glucose ikore umurimo wayo wo gutanga ingufu kuri buri rugingo rw’umubiri wacu, icyenera umusemburo ukorerwa mu nyama y’impindura (Pancreas) witwa insulin. Uyu musemburo ni wo uyifasha kwinjira mu tugirangingo fatizo tw’umubiri. Iyo uyu musemburo udahagije no kuba impindura yawe idakora neza cyangwa uturemangingo (cells) tutabasha kuwukoresha neza, icyo gihe isukari yigumira mu maraso, ari cyo bita IGISUKARI cyangwa DIYABETE mu ndimi z’amahanga.  Bivuze ko tuvuga yuko umuntu arwaye Diyabete, igihe isukari ye iri ku gipimo kirenze igisanzwe mu maraso.

Igihe rero isukari ivuye mu maraso igenze muri twa turemangingo, icyo gihe icyenera vitamini B (group B vitamins) kugira ngo ibashe gushya, itange ingufu. Ibi bisobanuye ko kugira ngo isukari ikoreshwe mu buryo buboneye, ari ngombwa ko turya n’ibyo kurya bikungahaye kuri vitamin B.

(ibyerekeye vitamins tuzabivugaho imbere).

Ingamba zo gufata ku byerekeye isukari

Umuryango Mpuzamahanga wita ku buzima (OMS) utanga inama zikurikira ku mirire iboneye ku byerekeye isukari:

  •  Nihabeho kongera ibyokurya bikungahaye ku isukari igera mu maraso gahoro-gahoro (complex carbohydrates: polysacharides). Byibuze 70% by’inkomoko y’ingufu ibe bene iyo.
  • Kugabanya gukoresha isukari yo mu ruganda uko bishoboka kose, ndetse niba bishoboka ihagarikwe gukoreshwa ku kugeze igeze kigero cya 0%

Izi nama zituma ibi biribwa bishyirwa ku mwanya: ibinyampeke byuzuye (ni ukuvuga bitanyujijwe mu nganda ngo binogerezwe); ibi kandi ni isoko ya Vitamin D icyenewe mu gukora kw’isukari mu mubiri. Iyi sukari nziza kandi tuzanayisanga no mu binyamafufu n’imizi nk’ibirayi, ibikoro, amateke, n’ibindi.

Turararikirwa kurya ibyo kurya bitanga isukari igoye guhita yiroha mu maraso. Ubwo ni bwo umubiri uzakomeza gukora kuri gahunda iboneye.

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